Libya's elite: Where are they now?

Former friends of Muammar Gaddafi have fled to all corners of the globe after defecting from the regime
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Moussa Koussa --\n\nFormer position: Foreign minister --\n\nDate defected: March 2011 --\n\nCurrent whereabouts: Qatar --\n\nAs Libya’s foreign minister, Moussa Koussa was one of the most recognisable faces of the North African state to the outside world. Nowadays, he is a regular attendee at the Il Teatro buffet restaurant at Doha’s Four Seasons Hotel, if British press reports are to be believed. On 28 March this year, Koussa took a car journey from Tripoli to the Ras Ejder border crossing with Tunisia. Two days later, he left the nearby Tunisian resort island of Djerba on a Swiss-registered private jet, with the UK’s Farnborough airport as his final destination. Britain’s Foreign and Commonwealth Office (FCO) later issued a press statement confirming Koussa’s resignation of his role with the Libyan government, and his condemnation of Libyan Army attacks on local civilians. Shortly after arriving in Britain, Koussa travelled to Qatar to attend a one-day Gulf ‘contact group’ to discuss the Libyan crisis – but has apparently found the penthouse of one of Doha’s most luxurious hotels too comfortable to leave.
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Mustafa Zarti --\n\nFormer position: vice chairman, Libyan Investment Authority --\n\nDate defected: April 2011 --\n\nCurrent whereabouts: Austria --\n\nOnce counting people like the chairman of Blackstone Group, Lord Jacob Rothschild and former German chancellor Gerhard Schroder as his friends, Mustafa Zarti fled Libya in April this year, and is now holed up at an undisclosed location in Vienna. Zarti had one of the top jobs at the Libyan sovereign wealth fund – estimated to have as much as $65bn in assets. In an interview with Bloomberg, Zarti said that he had lost access to many of his accounts, and that the stress from the uprising had made him “physically sick”.
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Mustafa Abdul Jalil --\n\nFormer position: Justice minister --\n\nDate defected: February 2011 --\nCurrent whereabouts: Benghazi, Libya --\n\nEven before the revolution this year, Mustafa Abdul Jalil was praised by Human Rights Watch and Amnesty International for his criticism of the detention of some prisoners without trial. In February this year, he was sent by Gaddafi to Benghazi to negotiate the release of hostages taken by revolutionary forces; instead, Abdul Jalil stayed in the capital of eastern Libya and called for his former boss’ resignation. Abdul Jalil was a key figure in the founding of the National Transitional Council, and is currently its chairman.
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Shokri Ghanem --\n\nFormer position: Oil minister --\n\nDate defected: May 2011 --\n\nCurrent whereabouts: Tunisia --\n\nAs the top official overseeing Libya’s mammoth oil and gas projects, Shokri Ghanem wielded considerable power and influence. He had also served as minister for the economy and trade, and as prime minister. In an interview with Reuters in March, Ghanem said he had no plans to leave, but appeared in Rome towards the end of May to confirm his defection. The former oil chief is currently living in Tunisia.
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Farhat Bengdara --\n\nFormer position: Central bank governor --\n\nDate defected: February 2011 --\n\nCurrent whereabouts: UK --\n\nWith a long pedigree in the finance industry, Farhat Bengdara quit his role as Libya’s central bank governor in February. In an interview with the UK-based Financial Times newspaper, Bengdara said he had delayed his defection to ensure that UN sanctions could have the strongest possible impact on the Libyan regime. He is now working with the Libyan opposition to try and ensure that those same sanctions are not blocking the import of vital food and medicine supplies to areas currently outside the control of the regime.
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Ali Aujali --\n\nFormer position: Ambassador to the US --\n\nDate defected: February 2011 --\n\nCurrent whereabouts: US --\n\nAfter a 42-year stint in the Libyan government, during which he served as the country’s ambassador to Malaysia, Argentina, Brazil and the US, Ali Aujali defected in February this year and is now the US representative for Libya’s main rebel group. Aujali was known for his forceful defence of the British decision to free Lockerbie bomber Abdelbasset Al Megrahi. However, in an interview with US National Public Radio earlier this month, Aujali accused Gaddafi of ‘cheating’ Libyans during the course of his reign. In a recent interview with the Wall Street Journal, Aujali said that he had been locked out of his embassy by diplomats still loyal to Gaddafi – forcing him to call the police – and his now-makeshift team of five diplomats has helped unfreeze more than $200m in Libyan assets to help countrymen who are studying abroad.
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Ali Al Amin Manfur --\n\nFormer position: Labour minister --\n\nDate defected: June 2011 --\n\nCurrent whereabouts: UK --\n\nLabour minister Ali Al Amin Manfur is one of the latest high-profile Libyan ministers to quit his post, confirming at the beginning of June that he had switched sides during an International Labour Organisation Conference in Geneva. "There is no possible political solution with the members of the regime," Manfur told a Swiss newspaper. "The regime is dogmatic ... No one was able to tell Gaddafi that he is finished and that his sons have no right to govern the country after him." Manfur also stated that he had spent three months trying to persuade Gaddafi to start negotiations with the rebels, but with no success. He is currently believed to be in the UK, although he has indicated that he plans to base himself in Benghazi in the near future to assist the opposition there. (Getty Image - for illustrative purposes only)
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Abdel Rahman Shalgam --\n\nFormer position: Ambassador to the UN --\n\nDate defected: February 2011 --\nCurrent whereabouts: US --\n\nA former foreign minister and current ambassador to the UN, Abdel Rahman Shalgam defected when he heard reports of Gaddafi firing on his own people in February. The diplomat, who was partially responsible for a thaw in US-Libyan ties, retains his post as ambassador to the UN after being appointed to the same position in early March by the National Transition Council.
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Sassi Garada --\n\nFormer position: Gaddafi aide --\n\nDate defected: June 2011 --\n\nCurrent whereabouts: UK/Switzerland --\n\nIn keeping with his propensity to stay out of the limelight, the exact location of former Gaddafi confidante Sassi Garada is currently unknown. The Associated Press reported a Libyan analyst as saying that Garada was either in Britain or Switzerland – although neither country has thus far been able to confirm his presence. One of Gaddafi’s oldest allies, Garada had “reportedly passed up several military promotions over the years to stay out of the limelight.”\n(Getty Image - for illustrative purposes only)